The Order of Combat
A typical combat encounter is a clash between two sides, a flurry of weapon swings, feints, parries, footwork, and spellcasting
. The game organizes the chaos of combat into a cycle of rounds and turns. A round
represents about 6 seconds in the game world. During a round, each participant in a battle takes a turn
. The order of turns is determined at the beginning of a combat encounter, when everyone rolls initiative. Once everyone has taken a turn, the fight continues to the next round if neither side has defeated the other.
Combat Step by Step
Determine surprise. The GM determines whether anyone involved in the combat encounter is surprised.
Establish positions: The GM decides where all the characters and monsters are located. Given the adventurers’ marching order or their stated positions in the room or other location, the GM figures out where the adversaries are̶how far away and in what direction.
Roll initiative: Everyone involved in the combat encounter rolls initiative, determining the order of combatants’ turns.
Take turns. Each participant in the battle takes a turn in initiative order.
Begin the next round. When everyone involved in the combat has had a turn, the round ends. Repeat step 4 until the fighting stops.
A band of adventurers sneaks up on a bandit
camp, springing from the trees to attack them. A Gelatinous Cube
glides down a dungeon passage, unnoticed by the adventurers until the cube engulfs one of them. In these situations, one side of the battle gains surprise over the other.
The GM determines who might be surprised. If neither side tries to be stealthy, they automatically notice each other. Otherwise, the GM compares the Dexterity (Stealth) checks
of anyone hiding with the passive Wisdom (Perception)
score of each creature on the opposing side. Any character or monster that doesn’t notice a threat is surprised at the start of the encounter.
If you’re surprised, you can’t move
or take an action on your first turn of the combat, and you can’t take a reaction
until that turn ends. A member of a group can be surprised even if the other members aren’t.
Initiative determines the order of turns during combat. When combat starts, every participant makes a Dexterity check
to determine their place in the initiative order. The GM makes one roll for an entire group of identical creatures, so each member of the group acts at the same time.
The GM ranks the combatants in order from the one with the highest Dexterity check
total to the one with the lowest. This is the order (called the initiative order) in which they act during each round. The initiative order remains the same from round to round.
If a tie occurs, the GM decides the order among tied GM--controlled creatures, and the players decide the order among their tied characters. The GM can decide the order if the tie is between a monster and a player character.
Optionally, the GM can have the tied characters and monsters each roll a d20 to determine the order, highest roll going first.
On your turn, you can move
a distance up to your speed
and take one action
You decide whether to move first or take your action first. Your speed— sometimes called your walking speed—is noted on your character sheet.
The most common actions you can take are described in the “Actions in Combat
” section. Many class features and other abilities provide additional options for your action.
You can forgo moving, taking an action, or doing anything at all on your turn. If you can’t decide what to do on your turn, consider taking the Dodge
or Ready action
, as described in “Actions in Combat
, and other abilities let you take an additional action on your turn called a bonus action. The Cunning Action
feature, for example, allows a rogue
to take a bonus action. You can take a bonus action only when a special ability, spell, or other feature of the game states that you can do something as a bonus action. You otherwise don’t have a bonus action to take.
You can take only one bonus action on your turn, so you must choose which bonus action to use when you have more than one available.
You choose when to take a bonus action during your turn, unless the bonus action’s timing is specified, and anything that deprives you of your ability to take actions also prevents you from taking a bonus action.
Other Activity on Your Turn
Your turn can include a variety of flourishes that require neither your action nor your move
You can communicate however you are able, through brief utterances and gestures, as you take your turn.
You can also interact with one object or feature of the environment for free, during either your move or your action
. For example, you could open a door during your move as you stride toward a foe, or you could draw your weapon as part of the same action you use to attack.
If you want to interact with a second object, you need to use your action. Some magic items
and other special objects always require an action to use, as stated in their descriptions.
The GM might require you to use an action for any of these activities when it needs special care or when it presents an unusual obstacle. For instance, the GM could reasonably expect you to use an action to open a stuck door or turn a crank to lower a drawbridge.
Certain special abilities, spells
, and situations allow you to take a special action called a reaction. A reaction is an instant response to a trigger of some kind, which can occur on your turn or on someone else’s. The opportunity attack
is the most common type of reaction.
When you take a reaction, you can’t take another one until the start of your next turn. If the reaction interrupts another creature’s turn, that creature can continue its turn right after the reaction.
Movement and Position
In combat, characters and monsters are in constant motion, often using movement and position to gain the upper hand.
On your turn, you can move a distance up to your speed
. You can use as much or as little of your speed as you like on your turn, following the rules here.
Your movement can include jumping, climbing, and swimming
. These different modes of movement can be combined with walking, or they can constitute your entire move. However you’re moving, you deduct the distance of each part of your move from your speed until it is used up or until you are done moving.
Breaking Up Your Move
You can break up your movement
on your turn, using some of your speed before and after your action. For example, if you have a speed of 30 feet, you can move 10 feet, take your action, and then move 20 feet.
Moving between Attacks
If you take an action that includes more than one weapon attack, you can break up your movement even further by moving between those attacks. For example, a fighter
who can make two attacks with the Extra Attack
feature and who has a speed of 25 feet could move 10 feet, make an attack, move 15 feet, and then attack again.
Using Different Speeds
If you have more than one speed
, such as your walking speed and a flying speed, you can switch back and forth between your speeds during your move.
Whenever you switch, subtract the distance you’ve already moved from the new speed. The result determines how much farther you can move
. If the result is 0 or less, you can’t use the new speed during the current move.
For example, if you have a speed of 30 and a flying speed of 60 because a wizard
cast the fly
spell on you, you could fly 20 feet, then walk 10 feet, and then leap into the air to fly 30 feet more.
Combat rarely takes place in bare rooms or on featureless plains. Boulder--strewn caverns, briar-- choked forests, treacherous staircases—the setting of a typical fight contains difficult terrain.
Every foot of movement
in difficult terrain costs 1 extra foot. This rule is true even if multiple things in a space count as difficult terrain.
Low furniture, rubble, undergrowth, steep stairs, snow, and shallow bogs are examples of difficult terrain. The space of another creature, whether hostile or not, also counts as difficult terrain.
Combatants often find themselves lying on the ground, either because they are knocked down or because they throw themselves down. In the game, they are Prone
You can drop prone
without using any of your speed
. Standing up
takes more effort; doing so costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed.
For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet of movement to stand up. You can’t stand up if you don’t have enough movement left or if your speed is 0.
To move while prone, you must crawl
or use magic such as teleportation. Every foot of movement
while crawling costs 1 extra foot. Crawling 1 foot in difficult terrain
, therefore, costs 3 feet of movement.
Interacting with Objects Around You
Here are a few examples of the sorts of thing you can do in tandem with your movement and action:
- draw or sheathe a sword
- open or close a door
- withdraw a potion from your backpack
- pick up a dropped axe
- take a bauble from a table
- remove a ring from your finger
- stuff some food into your mouth
- plant a banner in the ground
- fish a few coins from your belt pouch
- drink all the ale in a flagon
- throw a lever or a switch
- pull a torch from a sconce
- take a book from a shelf you can reach
- extinguish a small flame
- don a mask
- pull the hood of your cloak up and over your head
- put your ear to a door
- kick a small stone
- turn a key in a lock
- tap the floor with a 10-foot pole
- hand an item to another character
Moving Around Other Creatures
You can move
through a nonhostile creature’s space. In contrast, you can move through a hostile creature’s space only if the creature is at least two sizes
larger or smaller than you. Remember that another creature’s space is difficult terrain
Whether a creature is a friend or an enemy, you can’t willingly end your move in its space.
If you leave a hostile creature’s reach during your move, you provoke an opportunity attack
Flying creatures enjoy many benefits of mobility, but they must also deal with the danger of falling. If a flying creature is knocked prone
, has its speed reduced to 0, or is otherwise deprived of the ability to move, the creature falls, unless it has the ability to hover or it is being held aloft by magic, such as by the fly
Each creature takes up a different amount of space. Table: Size Categories
shows how much space a creature of a particular size controls in combat.
Objects sometimes use the same size categories.
Table: Size Categories
||2½ by 2½ ft.
||5 by 5 ft.
||5 by 5 ft.
||10 by 10 ft.
||15 by 15 ft.
||20 by 20 ft. or larger
A creature’s space is the area in feet that it effectively controls in combat, not an expression of its physical dimensions. A typical Medium creature isn’t 5 feet wide, for example, but it does control a space that wide. If a Medium hobgoblin
stands in a 5-- foot--wide doorway, other creatures can’t get through unless the hobgoblin lets them.
A creature’s space also reflects the area it needs to fight effectively. For that reason, there’s a limit to the number of creatures that can surround another creature in combat. Assuming Medium combatants, eight creatures can fit in a 5-foot radius around another one.
Because larger creatures take up more space, fewer of them can surround a creature. If five Large creatures crowd around a Medium or smaller one, there’s little room for anyone else. In contrast, as many as twenty Medium creatures can surround a Gargantuan one.
Squeezing into a Smaller Space
A creature can squeeze through a space that is large enough for a creature one size
smaller than it. Thus, a Large creature can squeeze through a passage that’s only 5 feet wide. While squeezing through a space, a creature must spend 1 extra foot for every foot it moves
there, and it has disadvantage
on attack rolls and Dexterity saving throws
. Attack rolls against the creature have advantage while it’s in the smaller space.
Actions in Combat
When you take your action on your turn, you can take one of the actions presented here, an action you gained from your class
or a special feature, or an action that you improvise. Many monsters have action options of their own in their stat blocks.
When you describe an action not detailed elsewhere in the rules, the GM tells you whether that action is possible and what kind of roll you need to make, if any, to determine success or failure.
The most common action to take in combat is the Attack action, whether you are swinging a sword, firing an arrow from a bow, or brawling with your fists.
With this action, you make one melee or ranged attack. See the “Making an Attack
” section for the rules that govern attacks.
Certain features, such as the Extra Attack
feature of the fighter
, allow you to make more than one attack with this action.
Cast a Spell
Spellcasters such as wizards
, as well as many monsters, have access to spells and can use them to great effect in combat. Each spell has a casting time
, which specifies whether the caster must use an action, a reaction
, minutes, or even hours to cast the spell. Casting a spell
is, therefore, not necessarily an action. Most spells do have a casting time of 1 action, so a spellcaster often uses his or her action in combat to cast such a spell.
When you take the Dash action, you gain extra movement
for the current turn. The increase equals your speed
, after applying any modifiers. With a speed of 30 feet, for example, you can move up to 60 feet on your turn if you dash.
Any increase or decrease to your speed changes this additional movement by the same amount. If your speed of 30 feet is reduced to 15 feet, for instance, you can move up to 30 feet this turn if you dash.
If you take the Disengage action, your movement doesn’t provoke opportunity attacks
for the rest of the turn.
When you take the Dodge action, you focus entirely on avoiding attacks
. Until the start of your next turn, any attack roll made against you has disadvantage
if you can see the attacker, and you make Dexterity saving throws with advantage. You lose this benefit if you are incapacitated
(as explained in Conditions
) or if your speed drops to 0.
You can lend your aid to another creature in the completion of a task. When you take the Help action, the creature you aid gains advantage
on the next ability check it makes to perform the task you are helping with, provided that it makes the check before the start of your next turn.
Alternatively, you can aid a friendly creature in attacking a creature within 5 feet of you. You feint, distract the target, or in some other way team up to make your ally’s attack more effective. If your ally attacks the target before your next turn, the first attack roll is made with advantage
When you take the Hide action, you make a Dexterity (Stealth) check
in an attempt to hide, following the rules for hiding
. If you succeed, you gain certain benefits, as described in the “Unseen Attackers and Targets
Sometimes you want to get the jump on a foe or wait for a particular circumstance before you act. To do so, you can take the Ready action on your turn, which lets you act using your reaction
before the start of your next turn.
First, you decide what perceivable circumstance will trigger your reaction. Then, you choose the action you will take in response to that trigger, or you choose to move
up to your speed in response to it. Examples include “If the cultist
steps on the trapdoor, I’ll pull the lever that opens it,” and “If the goblin
steps next to me, I move away.”
When the trigger occurs, you can either take your reaction right after the trigger finishes or ignore the trigger. Remember that you can take only one reaction per round.
When you ready a spell
, you cast it as normal but hold its energy, which you release with your reaction when the trigger occurs. To be readied, a spell must have a casting time
of 1 action, and holding onto the spell’s magic requires concentration
. If your concentration is broken, the spell dissipates without taking effect. For example, if you are concentrating on the web
spell and ready magic missile
, your web
spell ends, and if you take damage before you release magic missile
with your reaction, your concentration might be broken.
When you take the Search action, you devote your attention to finding something. Depending on the nature of your search, the GM might have you make a Wisdom (Perception) check
or an Intelligence (Investigation) check
Use an Object
You normally interact with an object while doing something else, such as when you draw a sword as part of an attack. When an object requires your action for its use, you take the Use an Object action. This action is also useful when you want to interact with more than one object on your turn.
Making an Attack
Whether you’re striking with a melee weapon, firing a weapon at range, or making an attack roll as part of a spell
, an attack has a simple structure.
Choose a target. Pick a target within your attack’s range: a creature, an object, or a location.
Determine modifiers. The GM determines whether the target has cover and whether you have advantage or disadvantage against the target. In addition, spells, special abilities, and other effects can apply penalties or bonuses to your attack roll.
Resolve the attack. You make the attack roll. On a hit, you roll damage, unless the particular attack has rules that specify otherwise. Some attacks cause special effects in addition to or instead of damage.
If there’s ever any question whether something you’re doing counts as an attack, the rule is simple: if you’re making an attack roll, you’re making an attack.
When you make an attack, your attack roll determines whether the attack hits or misses. To make an attack roll, roll a d20 and add the appropriate modifiers. If the total of the roll plus modifiers equals or exceeds the target’s Armor Class (AC), the attack hits. The AC of a character is determined at character creation, whereas the AC of a monster is in its stat block.
Modifiers to the Roll
When a character makes an attack roll, the two most common modifiers to the roll are an ability modifier
and the character’s proficiency bonus
. When a monster makes an attack roll, it uses whatever modifier is provided in its stat block.
: The ability modifier used for a melee weapon attack is Strength, and the ability modifier used for a ranged weapon attack is Dexterity. Weapons that have the finesse
or thrown property break this rule. Some spells
also require an attack roll. The ability modifier used for a spell attack
depends on the spellcasting ability of the spellcaster.
: You add your proficiency bonus to your attack roll when you attack using a weapon with which you have proficiency, as well as when you attack with a spell.
Rolling 1 or 20
Sometimes fate blesses or curses a combatant, causing the novice to hit and the veteran to miss.
If the d20 roll for an attack is a 20, the attack hits regardless of any modifiers or the target’s AC. This is called a critical hit
If the d20 roll for an attack is a 1, the attack misses regardless of any modifiers
or the target’s AC.
Unseen Attackers and Targets
Combatants often try to escape their foes’ notice by hiding
, casting the invisibility
spell, or lurking in darkness.
When you attack a target that you can’t see, you have disadvantage
on the attack roll. This is true whether you’re guessing the target’s location or you’re targeting a creature you can hear but not see. If the target isn’t in the location you targeted, you automatically miss, but the GM typically just says that the attack missed, not whether you guessed the target’s location correctly.
When a creature can’t see you, you have advantage on attack rolls against it. If you are hidden—both unseen and unheard—when you make an attack, you give away your location when the attack hits or misses.
When you make a ranged attack, you fire a bow or a crossbow
, hurl a handaxe
, or otherwise send projectiles to strike a foe at a distance. A monster might shoot spines from its tail. Many spells
also involve making a ranged attack.
You can make ranged attacks only against targets within a specified range.
If a ranged attack, such as one made with a spell, has a single range, you can’t attack a target beyond this range.
Some ranged attacks, such as those made with a longbow
or a shortbow
, have two ranges. The smaller number is the normal range, and the larger number is the long range. Your attack roll has disadvantage
when your target is beyond normal range, and you can’t attack a target beyond the long range.
Ranged Attacks in Close Combat
Aiming a ranged attack is more difficult when a foe is next to you. When you make a ranged attack with a weapon, a spell
, or some other means, you have disadvantage
on the attack roll if you are within 5 feet of a hostile creature who can see you and who isn’t incapacitated
Used in hand--to--hand combat, a melee attack allows you to attack a foe within your reach. A melee attack typically uses a handheld weapon such as a sword, a warhammer
, or an axe
. A typical monster makes a melee attack when it strikes with its claws, horns, teeth, tentacles, or other body part. A few spells
also involve making a melee attack.
Most creatures have a 5-foot reach
and can thus attack targets within 5 feet of them when making a melee attack. Certain creatures (typically those larger than Medium) have melee attacks with a greater reach than 5 feet, as noted in their descriptions.
Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, you can use an unarmed strike
: a punch, kick, head--butt, or similar forceful blow (none of which count as weapons). On a hit, an unarmed strike deals bludgeoning damage
equal to 1 + your modifier. You are proficient
with your unarmed strikes.
In a fight, everyone is constantly watching for a chance to strike an enemy who is fleeing or passing by. Such a strike is called an opportunity attack.
You can make an opportunity attack when a hostile creature that you can see moves
out of your reach. To make the opportunity attack, you use your reaction
to make one melee attack against the provoking creature. The attack occurs right before the creature leaves your reach.
You can avoid provoking an opportunity attack by taking the Disengage
action. You also don’t provoke an opportunity attack when you teleport or when someone or something moves you without using your movement, action, or reaction. For example, you don’t provoke an opportunity attack if an explosion hurls you out of a foe’s reach or if gravity causes you to fall past an enemy.
When you take the Attack action and attack with a light
melee weapon that you’re holding in one hand, you can use a bonus action
to attack with a different light melee weapon that you’re holding in the other hand. You don’t add your ability modifier
to the damage of the bonus attack, unless that modifier
If either weapon has the thrown
property, you can throw the weapon, instead of making a melee attack with it.
When you want to grab a creature or wrestle with it, you can use the Attack action to make a special melee attack, a grapple. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.
The target of your grapple must be no more than one size
larger than you and must be within your reach. Using at least one free hand, you try to seize the target by making a grapple check instead of an attack roll: a Strength (Athletics) check
contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check
(the target chooses the ability to use). If you succeed, you subject the target to the grappled
condition (see Conditions
). The condition specifies the things that end it, and you can release the target whenever you like (no action required).
Escaping a Grapple
: A grappled creature can use its action to escape. To do so, it must succeed on a Strength (Athletics)
or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check
contested by your Strength (Athletics) check.
Moving a Grappled Creature
: When you move
, you can drag or carry the grappled creature with you, but your speed is halved, unless the creature is two or more sizes
smaller than you.
Contests in Combat
Battle often involves pitting your prowess against that of your foe. Such a challenge is represented by a contest. This section includes the most common contests that require an action in combat: grappling and shoving a creature. The GM can use these contests as models for improvising others.
Shoving a Creature
Using the Attack action, you can make a special melee attack to shove a creature, either to knock it prone
or push it away from you. If you’re able to make multiple attacks with the Attack action, this attack replaces one of them.
The target must be no more than one size
larger than you and must be within your reach. Instead of making an attack roll, you make a Strength (Athletics) check
contested by the target’s Strength (Athletics) or Dexterity (Acrobatics) check
(the target chooses the ability to use). If you win the contest, you either knock the target prone or push it 5 feet away from you.
Walls, trees, creatures, and other obstacles can provide cover during combat, making a target more difficult to harm. A target can benefit from cover only when an attack or other effect originates on the opposite side of the cover.
There are three degrees of cover. If a target is behind multiple sources of cover, only the most protective degree of cover applies; the degrees aren’t added together. For example, if a target is behind a creature that gives half cover and a tree trunk that gives three--quarters cover, the target has three--quarters cover.
A target with half cover
has a +2 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has half cover if an obstacle blocks at least half of its body. The obstacle might be a low wall, a large piece of furniture, a narrow tree trunk, or a creature, whether that creature is an enemy or a friend.
A target with three--quarters cover
has a +5 bonus to AC and Dexterity saving throws. A target has three--quarters cover if about three--quarters of it is covered by an obstacle. The obstacle might be a portcullis, an arrow slit, or a thick tree trunk.
A target with total cover
can’t be targeted directly by an attack or a spell
, although some spells can reach such a target by including it in an area of effect. A target has total cover if it is completely concealed by an obstacle.
Damage and Healing
Injury and the risk of death are constant companions of those who explore fantasy gaming worlds. The thrust of a sword, a well--placed arrow, or a blast of flame from a fireball
spell all have the potential to damage, or even kill, the hardiest of creatures.
Hit points represent a combination of physical and mental durability, the will to live, and luck. Creatures with more hit points are more difficult to kill. Those with fewer hit points are more fragile.
A creature’s current hit points (usually just called hit points) can be any number from the creature’s hit point maximum down to 0. This number changes frequently as a creature takes damage or receives healing.
Whenever a creature takes damage, that damage is subtracted from its hit points. The loss of hit points has no effect on a creature’s capabilities until the creature drops to 0 hit points.
Each weapon, spell
, and harmful monster ability specifies the damage it deals. You roll the damage die or dice, add any modifiers, and apply the damage to your target. Magic weapons, special abilities, and other factors can grant a bonus to damage. With a penalty, it is possible to deal 0 damage, but never negative damage.
When attacking with a weapon
, you add your ability modifier
—the same modifier used for the attack roll—to the damage. A spell
tells you which dice to roll for damage and whether to add any modifiers.
If a spell
or other effect deals damage to more than one target
at the same time, roll the damage once for all of them. For example, when a wizard
or a cleric
casts flame strike
, the spell’s damage is rolled once for all creatures caught in the blast.
When you score a critical hit, you get to roll extra dice for the attack’s damage against the target. Roll all of the attack’s damage dice twice and add them together. Then add any relevant modifiers as normal. To speed up play, you can roll all the damage dice at once.
For example, if you score a critical hit with a dagger, roll 2d4 for the damage, rather than 1d4, and then add your relevant ability modifier
. If the attack involves other damage dice, such as from the rogue’s Sneak Attack
feature, you roll those dice twice as well.
Different attacks, damaging spells
, and other harmful effects deal different types of damage. Damage types have no rules of their own, but other rules, such as damage resistance, rely on the types.
The damage types follow, with examples to help a GM assign a damage type to a new effect.
: The corrosive spray of a black dragon’s
breath and the dissolving enzymes secreted by a Black Pudding
deal acid damage.
: Blunt force attacks—hammers
, constriction, and the like—deal bludgeoning damage.
: The infernal chill radiating from an Ice Devil’s
spear and the frigid blast of a white dragon’s
breath deal cold damage.
: Red dragons
breathe fire, and many spells
conjure flames to deal fire damage.
: Force is pure magical energy focused into a damaging form. Most effects that deal force damage are spells, including magic missile
and spiritual weapon
: A lightning bolt
spell and a blue dragon’s
breath deal lightning damage.
: Necrotic damage, dealt by certain undead
and a spell such as chill touch
, withers matter and even the soul.
: Puncturing and impaling attacks, including spears
and monsters’ bites, deal piercing damage.
: Venomous stings and the toxic gas of a green dragon’s
breath deal poison damage.
: Mental abilities such as a mind flayer’s psionic blast deal psychic damage.
: Radiant damage, dealt by a cleric’s flame strike
spell or an angel’s smiting weapon, sears the flesh like fire and overloads the spirit with power.
, and monsters’ claws deal slashing damage.
: A concussive burst of sound, such as the effect of the thunderwave
spell, deals thunder damage.
Damage Resistance and Vulnerability
Some creatures and objects are exceedingly difficult or unusually easy to hurt with certain types of damage.
If a creature or an object has resistance
to a damage type
, damage of that type is halved against it. If a creature or an object has vulnerability
to a damage type, damage of that type is doubled against it.
Resistance and then vulnerability are applied after all other modifiers to damage. For example, a creature has resistance to bludgeoning damage and is hit by an attack that deals 25 bludgeoning damage. The creature is also within a magical aura that reduces all damage by 5. The 25 damage is first reduced by 5 and then halved, so the creature takes 10 damage.
Multiple instances of resistance or vulnerability that affect the same damage type
count as only one instance. For example, if a creature has resistance to fire damage as well as resistance to all nonmagical damage, the damage of a nonmagical fire is reduced by half against the creature, not reduced by three-- quarters.
Unless it results in death, damage isn’t permanent. Even death is reversible through powerful magic. Rest can restore a creature’s hit points, and magical methods such as a cure wounds spell
or a potion of healing
can remove damage in an instant.
When a creature receives healing of any kind, hit points regained are added to its current hit points. A creature’s hit points can’t exceed its hit point maximum, so any hit points regained in excess of this number are lost. For example, a druid
grants a ranger
8 hit points of healing. If the ranger has 14 current hit points and has a hit point maximum of 20, the ranger regains 6 hit points from the druid, not 8.
A creature that has died can’t regain hit points
until magic such as the revivify
spell has restored it to life.
Dropping to 0 Hit Points
When you drop to 0 hit points, you either die outright or fall unconscious
, as explained in the following sections.
Massive damage can kill you instantly. When damage reduces you to 0 hit points and there is damage remaining, you die if the remaining damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum.
For example, a cleric
with a maximum of 12 hit points currently has 6 hit points. If she takes 18 damage from an attack, she is reduced to 0 hit points, but 12 damage remains. Because the remaining damage equals her hit point maximum, the cleric dies.
If damage reduces you to 0 hit points and fails to kill you, you fall unconscious
). This unconsciousness ends if you regain any hit points.
Death Saving Throws
Whenever you start your turn with 0 hit points, you must make a special saving throw, called a death saving throw, to determine whether you creep closer to death or hang onto life. Unlike other saving throws, this one isn’t tied to any ability score
. You are in the hands of fate now, aided only by spells
and features that improve your chances of succeeding on a saving throw.
Roll a d20
: If the roll is 10 or higher, you succeed. Otherwise, you fail. A success or failure has no effect by itself. On your third success, you become stable
(see below). On your third failure, you die. The successes and failures don’t need to be consecutive; keep track of both until you collect three of a kind. The number of both is reset to zero when you regain any hit points or become stable.
Rolling 1 or 20
: When you make a death saving throw and roll a 1 on the d20, it counts as two failures. If you roll a 20 on the d20, you regain 1 hit point.
Damage at 0 Hit Points
: If you take any damage while you have 0 hit points, you suffer a death saving throw failure. If the damage is from a critical hit
, you suffer two failures instead. If the damage equals or exceeds your hit point maximum, you suffer instant death.
Stabilizing a Creature
The best way to save a creature with 0 hit points is to heal it. If healing is unavailable, the creature can at least be stabilized so that it isn’t killed by a failed death saving throw
You can use your action to administer first aid to an unconscious
creature and attempt to stabilize it, which requires a successful DC 10 Wisdom (Medicine) check
creature doesn’t make death saving throws
, even though it has 0 hit points, but it does remain unconscious. The creature stops being stable, and must start making death saving throws again, if it takes any damage. A stable creature that isn’t healed regains 1 hit point after 1d4 hours.
Monsters and Death
Most GMs have a monster die the instant it drops to 0 hit points, rather than having it fall unconscious
and make death saving throws
Mighty villains and special nonplayer characters are common exceptions; the GM might have them fall unconscious and follow the same rules as player characters.
Knocking a Creature Out
Sometimes an attacker wants to incapacitate a foe, rather than deal a killing blow. When an attacker reduces a creature to 0 hit points with a melee attack, the attacker can knock the creature out. The attacker can make this choice the instant the damage is dealt. The creature falls unconscious
and is stable
Temporary Hit Points
and special abilities confer temporary hit points to a creature. Temporary hit points aren’t actual hit points; they are a buffer against damage, a pool of hit points that protect you from injury.
When you have temporary hit points and take damage, the temporary hit points are lost first, and any leftover damage carries over to your normal hit points. For example, if you have 5 temporary hit points and take 7 damage, you lose the temporary hit points and then take 2 damage.
Because temporary hit points are separate from your actual hit points, they can exceed your hit point maximum. A character can, therefore, be at full hit points and receive temporary hit points.
Healing can’t restore temporary hit points, and they can’t be added together. If you have temporary hit points and receive more of them, you decide whether to keep the ones you have or to gain the new ones. For example, if a spell grants you 12 temporary hit points when you already have 10, you can have 12 or 10, not 22.
If you have 0 hit points, receiving temporary hit points doesn’t restore you to consciousness or stabilize
you. They can still absorb damage directed at you while you’re in that state, but only true healing can save you.
Unless a feature that grants you temporary hit points has a duration, they last until they’re depleted or you finish a long rest
charging into battle on a warhorse
, a wizard
from the back of a griffon
, or a cleric
soaring through the sky on a pegasus
all enjoy the benefits of speed and mobility that a mount can provide.
A willing creature that is at least one size
larger than you and that has an appropriate anatomy can serve as a mount, using the following rules.
Mounting and Dismounting
Once during your move
, you can mount a creature that is within 5 feet of you or dismount. Doing so costs an amount of movement equal to half your speed
. For example, if your speed is 30 feet, you must spend 15 feet of movement to mount a horse. Therefore, you can’t mount it if you don’t have 15 feet of movement left or if your speed is 0.
If an effect moves your mount against its will while you’re on it, you must succeed on a DC 10 Dexterity saving throw or fall off the mount, landing prone
in a space within 5 feet of it. If you’re knocked prone while mounted, you must make the same saving throw.
If your mount is knocked prone, you can use your reaction
to dismount it as it falls and land on your feet. Otherwise, you are dismounted and fall prone in a space within 5 feet it.
Controlling a Mount
While you’re mounted, you have two options. You can either control the mount or allow it to act independently. Intelligent creatures, such as dragons, act independently.
You can control a mount only if it has been trained to accept a rider. Domesticated horses
, donkeys, and similar creatures are assumed to have such training. The initiative
of a controlled mount changes to match yours when you mount it. It moves
as you direct it, and it has only three action options: Dash
, and Dodge
. A controlled mount can move and act even on the turn that you mount it.
An independent mount retains its place in the initiative order. Bearing a rider puts no restrictions on the actions the mount can take, and it moves and acts as it wishes. It might flee from combat, rush to attack and devour a badly injured foe, or otherwise act against your wishes.
In either case, if the mount provokes an opportunity attack
while you’re on it, the attacker can target you or the mount.
When adventurers pursue sahuagin
back to their undersea homes, fight off sharks
in an ancient shipwreck, or find themselves in a flooded dungeon room, they must fight in a challenging environment. Underwater the following rules apply.
When making a melee weapon attack
, a creature that doesn’t have a swimming
speed (either natural or granted by magic) has disadvantage
on the attack roll unless the weapon is a dagger, javelin, shortsword, spear, or trident.
A ranged weapon attack
automatically misses a target beyond the weapon’s
. Even against a target within normal range, the attack roll has disadvantage
unless the weapon is a crossbow, a net, or a weapon that is thrown
like a javelin (including a spear, trident, or dart).
Creatures and objects that are fully immersed in water have resistance
to fire damage.